Finland's Valtteri Bottas qualified third for Williams and will be joined on the second row by Force India's Mexican Sergio Perez due to a five-place grid penalty for Lotus's Romain Grosjean ahead of him.
Hamilton, who is now assured of the Formula One pole trophy, leads closest rival Rosberg by 21 points after 10 of the season's 19 races.
Ferrari's Kimi Raikkonen failed to make it into the final phase of qualifying after his car's engine cut and he ground to a halt on the track. The Finn's German team mate Sebastian Vettel qualified ninth but will start eighth.
Original source: Hamilton takes 10th pole in 11 races