“This one is for Colin,” said the Citroen driver after becoming the first Briton to win a round of the championship since the Scot in 2002.
McRae, the 1995 world rally champion, died in a helicopter crash near his family home in 2007. His last win was in the Safari Rally.
Northern Irishman Meeke's Citroen team mate Mads Ostberg of Norway finished second, 18.1 seconds behind, in Sunday's event around the resort of Villa Carlos Paz, near Cordoba and some 700km north-west of Buenos Aires.
Britain's Elfyn Evans was third in a Ford for his first WRC podium finish despite breaking his car's rear suspension on the last stage.
World champion Sebastien Ogier finished 14th for Volkswagen after a retirement on the opening day due to engine problems ended his hopes of a sixth successive win.
The Frenchman, who has never won in Argentina, returned to pick up three points for winning Sunday's 'power stage' and remains comfortably ahead in the championship with 84 points after four rounds.
Ostberg moved up to second in the standings with 51 points.
It was the first time since Germany 2013 that champions Volkswagen, who also had Finnish driver Jari-Matti Latvala retire, had failed to finish in the top three. It was also Citroen's first one-two finish since 2012.
Original source: Meeke races to first WRC victory