With Sri Lanka 207 runs in arrears, England captain Alastair Cook asked them to bat again.
It was the first time England had enforced the follow-on since they did so against New Zealand at Wellington in 2013.
James Anderson took five for 16, his best Test figures at Headingley, including a spell of four for one in 29 balls.
New-ball partner Stuart Broad took four for 21 in an innings that was completed inside 37 overs.
Only Sri Lanka captain Angelo Mathews (34) and Lahiru Thirimanne (22) offered any sort of resistance with the bat.
Wicket-keeper Jonathan Bairstow held five catches after scoring 140 -- his first Test century in England -- on his Yorkshire home ground earlier Friday.
This is the first of a three-Test series. – AFP
Original source: Sri Lanka forced to follow-on